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作為設計師應合理處理好住宅區與城市交通規劃

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發布日期:2013-11-25
由于香港浙江銘揚工程設計有限公司的業主國內外人士都有,所以這篇文章,我以英文翻譯一次給大家看,以便外國朋友也能學習到一些這方面的知識。
 
    近年來各個城市在道路建設上花費了大量資金、人力,取得了明顯成績,人均道路面積增加了不少。可是從路網的密度看,城區的支路密度是普遍偏低的。按規范,城市支路道路網密度是3-4公里/平方公里,如果是一般商業集中地區應為10-12公里/平方公里,如果市中心區的建筑容積率達到8時,宜為12-16公里/平方公里。支路道路網密度低于這個指標,堵車是必然的。再寬的主干道,再多的快速路和立交,也解決不了交通堵塞問題。
(construction and manpower, has achieved obvious results, per capita road area is increased a lot. But look from the density of road network, the city branch density is generally low. According to the specification, the city branch road network density is 3-4 km/sq km, if is general commercial centers should be 10 to 12 km/sq km, if the building volume rate of 8 in downtown, appropriate for a 12-16 kilometers per square kilometers. Branch road network density is lower than the index, the traffic is inevitable. Wide main again, no amount of expressway and interchange, also cannot solve the traffic jam problem。)
城市各級道路應成為劃分城市各分區、組團、各類城市用地的分界線。比如城市一般道路和次干道可能成為劃分小街坊或小區的分界線;城市次干道和主干道可能成為劃分大街坊或居住區的分界線;城市交通性干道和快速道路及兩旁綠帶,可能成為劃分城市分區或功能區的分界線。
(Urban roads at all levels should be divided into urban areas, groups, all kinds of urban land line. Such as urban general road and time artery could be divided into small neighborhood or village boundaries; Urban trunk road and main street may be divided into large neighborhood or residential area boundary; Urban traffic trunk road and fast road and green belt on both sides, can be divided the dividing partition or function。)
不同的城市設計、建筑設計、建筑風格和社區文化,會形成各具特點的城市形象。比如是北京的胡同、四合院已是北京古城風貌的重要元素。而在曼哈頓的棋盤式街道中,南北斜穿了一條百老匯大街,形成許多三角地帶,如時報廣場、熨斗大樓,豐富了城市景觀。在北部又安排了一個中央公園和大片綠地,成為城市的一葉“綠肺”。在美國大學任教的丹麥建筑教授——漢普列根,創導了SAR理論,即支撐體理論。該理論認為,住宅基本上由支撐體、結構、交通管道核心筒和填充體隔墻、房間組成。前者不能隨意變化,后者則是可以靈活布置的。推而廣之,在城市中也有支撐體和填充體。前者是道路、市政條件,后者是指由街道圍成的街坊、小區建筑。只要把支撐體規劃好,填充體就可豐富多彩、百花競放。這就是比較切合實際并且是有可持續發展觀點的城市規劃方法。
(Different urban design, architectural design, architectural style and community culture, characteristic to form the image of the city. Such as Beijing's hutongs and courtyard are important elements of the ancient city of Beijing style. In the chessboard of Manhattan street, north and south inclined wore a Broadway, forming many triangle, such as times square, the iron building, enrich the city landscape. In the north and arranged a central park and large green space, become a city of "green lung". In the United States, a professor at the university of Denmark, architecture - hampshire column root, guide the theory of SAR, the supporting body theory. The theory is that residential basically by supporting body, the structure, the transportation pipeline of core tube and filling body partition, room. The former can't change, the latter can be flexible layout. By extension, in the city also has a supporting body and filling body. The former is roads, municipal conditions, the latter refers to the neighborhood surrounded by streets, community building. As long as the support plan, filling body can be rich and colorful and varied. This is more realistic and method of urban planning is a sustainable development perspective.)
中國近現代的城市住區形式大致出現了街區,如里弄式、街坊式、胡同四合院、鄰里單位、居住區和綜合區,如開發區、商務區中混建住宅區等各種形式。居住小區和住宅區的模式已有大量的實踐經驗,并有相應的國家規范作指導,但這不是唯一的住區建設模式。由于住區和城市道路系統有密切的關系,在城市不同區位,住區的形式應有不同的方式。以北京為例,住宅小區成片開發,規模越來越大。有的開發商已提出“造城運動”、“新住宅運動”,要造新城,要在風景區、綠化水景邊大造低密度住宅。原有的居住區規劃模式不能無限擴大,成為小城鎮的模式。前者可由開發商去建設,后者可就是政府職能范圍的事了。開發商沒必要,也不可能去替代政府職能,總攬城市規劃與建設的問題。如果在三環路內再成片開發居住小區,勢必造成“腸梗塞”,打亂街道路網的合理布局;如果在五、六環路綠化帶附近大片開發低密度住宅區,勢必成為“羊拉屎”。這不僅違背了中國“地少人多”的國情,葉有悖于節地原則,而且這些孤立的小區各自為政,勢必帶來交通、市政、公建配套、城市管理、節能、環保等隱患。設個模式值得學習的。
(Chinese modern city residential areas form a block roughly, such as manual type, neighborhood type, hutong courtyard, neighbourhood units, residential area, and the compound, such as a variety of forms such as mixing in the development zone and CBD residential area. Patterns of residential area and residential area has a lot of practical experience, and have corresponding national standards as a guide, but this is not the only model of residential construction. Due to residential and has a close relationship between city road system, different location in the city, residential form should have a different way. In Beijing, for example, the development of residential area and the size bigger and bigger. Some developers have put forward the "city", "new housing movement", to build a new town, to be at the edge of the scenic area, green water features large low-density residential. The original residential area planning mode cannot be enlarged unlimitedly, become the pattern of small towns. The former can be made of developers to build, the latter is the scope of the functions of the government. Developers don't need to, also won't be able to replace the functions of the government, commanding the problem of city planning and construction. If within the 3rd ring into residential area development, certainly will cause the bowel infarction, disturb the street network reasonable layout; If green belts in five or six loop around the large development low density residential area, is bound to become a "sheep shit". This not only violated China "more than less people", the state of the union goes against the principle in rhythmic, and these isolated village fragmented, is bound to bring traffic, municipal and public facilities, urban management, energy saving, environmental protection etc. Set a model worthy of learning.)
拿北京來舉例,在北京的亦莊經濟技術開發區,我覺得是蠻成功的。第一點,它不是單一的工業開發區,而是綜合性極度強的開發區。該區的居住區不是“臥城”,不少居民可以就地上班,可以解決很多就業問題;第二點,它的區位離城市較遠,通過京津塘高速路連接,是典型的衛星城布局形式,不會成為城市“攤大餅”式的邊緣地帶;第三點,它的街道采取了棋盤式格網形式,既有北京舊城的傳統格局,又為分期開發創造條件。街道之間的地塊大小適中,既可小塊開發,又可聯片開發:第四點,它的建設模式采用了二級開發。一級開發,由區管委會負責,把生地開發成熟地,保證“六通一平”,先建熱力、動力、電訊、管理中心。二級開發由開發商或公司單位、業主自行開發。在城區內,三、四環路以內大片開發綜合區,交通問題往往成為最急迫的問題。
(Take the example of Beijing, in Beijing as well economic technique development zone, I think is really successful. First of all, it is not a single industrial development zone, but extremely strong comprehensive development zone. The area of the residential area is not "lie the city", many residents can on-site work, can solve a lot of employment problem; Second, its location far from the city, through the jingjintang highway connection, is a typical satellite city layout form, will not be the edge of the city "booth pie" type; Third, it took the streets of chessboard type grid form, both the traditional pattern of Beijing old city, and create conditions for developing stages. Street between the lot size is moderate, as well as small pieces of development, but also joint development: for the fourth, its construction model adopted in secondary development. The level of development, by the district management committee is responsible for, radix rehmanniae developed maturely, guarantee "six and one leveling", first built heat, power, telecommunications, management center. The secondary development by developers or company unit, developed by the owner. Within the urban area, three, large development within the compound, the fourth ring road traffic problems often become the most urgent problem.)
有些業內人士提出過這樣一個理論,TOD理論,即:介紹了國外城市在這方面的經驗。這種土地利用和公共交通系統之間的結合是一種很有效率的開發模式,可以有效減少交通堵塞和空氣污染。這種系統充分重視區域性公共交通系統和居民步行距離。整個TOD杜區內擁有居住、工作、商業、文化公共空間的混合用地,大大減少環境和社會成本。這將對我們傳統的以小汽車為導向的城市道路系統來說是一種新的挑戰。例如:我們的香港,在交通方面就處理得很好,雖然香港的馬路都比較小,但是香港的交通從來不堵。這說明什么呢?景觀設計師所要做的就是要在學經景觀規劃設計、建筑設計、環境景觀設計等等知識的基礎上,要結合實際案例和著名景觀設計公司設計的案例去分析,總結。要使自己的設計成果更加有力與民。設計絕對不是平平湊湊的問題,設計是一個民生工程,這是作為一名合格景觀設計師、優秀設計師所應該認識的深度。

(Some in the industry put forward a theory, TOD theory, namely: the city's experience in this field in foreign countries is introduced. This kind of combination between land use and public transportation system is a very efficient development mode, can effectively reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. This system fully attaches great importance to the regional public transport system and the walking distance of the residents. The TOD du district live, work, business, culture, public space of the mixed land use, greatly reduce the environmental and social costs. This will be for our traditional car oriented city road system is a new challenge. We in Hong Kong, for example, in the aspect of traffic handling well, while Hong Kong road are small, but Hong Kong's traffic never. That means what? Landscape designers have to do is to XueJing landscape planning and design, architectural design, landscape design and so on knowledge, on the basis of to combine the actual cases and famous landscape design company design case analysis, summarized in this paper. To make their designs more powerful and the people. Design is definitely not along on the problem, the design is a livelihood project, this is as a qualified designer, excellent designers should know the depth.)

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